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In 2019, a new book by Lenhard was published. Lenhard attempts to separate computer simulations from classical mathematical modeling. Having structured the material accumulated over the years of research into three parts, Lenhard correctly, without starting the construction of revolutionary metaphysical concepts, takes the reader through the new world of the philosophy of computer simulations. In the first part, the author proves the thesis that computer simulations are a completely new, previously unknown, type of mathematical modeling. The second part focuses on the conceptual epistemic transformations of mathematical modeling as applied to computer simulations. Particular importance is attached to the verification methods used in scientific experiments: verification and validation. In the third part, Lenhard, questioning the purely scientific rational way of knowing, tries to grope for the contours of new methods that will be due to the use of computer simulations in scientific research practice. In this article, we will analyze the problem areas that Lenhard identifies in his book as the most important for understanding the philosophical essence of computer simulations.
The article considers the influence of Dostoevsky’s thought to the philosophy of N.A. Berdyaev and
S.L. Frank. The crucial concept and experience of “living knowledge” and its anticipation in
Dostoevsky’s heritage are discussed. Given that the problem of “living knowledge” overpasses the boundaries
of pure gnoseology, we examines themes of ethical ideal, the meaning of religious belief and its
existential significance. Besides that, in the article are presented three interrelated projects of theodicy in
the Russian philosophy of 20th century (by N.A. Berdyaev, B.P. Vysheslavtsev and S.L. Frank). All of
these projects are grounded in Dostoevsky’s thought. The supplement to the article consists of the first
Russian translation of N.A. Arsenyev’s lecture “The central inspiration of Dostoevsky”.
In the modern Russian philosophy, discussions about the phenomenon of computer simulations in the scientific research practice of conducting experiments are just beginning to pass the stage of initiation in small interdisciplinary groups studying this new direction for the philosophy of science. At the same time, in Western philosophy by the current moment there have been formed entire directions for the study of computer simulations. Different groups of researchers in different ways form ideas about the basic characteristics of simulations: from skeptical views on their nature, which are of no philosophical interest, to extremely revolutionary attitudes that assign simulations to the main role in the next expected turn of philosophy, comparable in its power to the linguistic turn in early XX century. One of the main controversial issues in Western philosophical thought was the search for relevant criteria and signs of simulations that could create a solid basis for formulating a rigorous definition of this phenomenon. Thus, through the definition, researchers first of all try, on the one hand, to solve the taxonomic problem of the correlation and interconnection of simulations with other types of experiment: natural, laboratory, mental, mathematical. On the other hand, to reveal for philosophy ontological and epistemological foundations of simulations, which carry the potential of new philosophical knowledge. This article is devoted to a brief review of the existing concepts of representatives of Western schools of thought on the phenomenon of computer simulations in the context of the philosophy of science. The structure of the review is built on three basic conceptual directions: 1) definition of the term "computer simulation"; 2) computer simulations as an experiment; 3) the epistemic value of simulations. Such a review can become the subject of discussion for Russian researchers interested in the impact of computer simulations on science and philosophy
The article discusses Vyacheslav Ivanov’s interpretation of “the Russian Idea” concept. In particular, it demonstrates the philosophical nature of this concept in the context of Vyacheslav Ivanov’s theory of symbolism. This calls into question the “mystical” interpretation of the sociopolitical views of the thinker, which already during his lifetime became one of the arguments of his critics.
The research is dedicated to the critical comparison of two phenomenological strategies that elaborate the issue of space (G. Bachelard’s and D. Trigg’s), and link the placement in space with the emotional and bodily experience and the capacity of human to extend beyond. Phenomenological descriptions of the spacial experience indicate the deeply emotional colouring of human attitude towards place, that implies searching for one’s “own place in the world”, or a home. The article develops the idea that the relationship between the human and the space (or the way the body perceives the space) can be conceptualized through the concepts of topophilia and topophobia. This explanation has existential ground, and it has to deal with poetic imagination, hope and anxiety. The concepts of the friendly/unfriendly landscape or environment cannot be reduced to the personal or subjective judgement on its ergonomics, but it also cannot be limited to the constructive characteristics and pecularities of some place perceived as a “workspace”, “leisure area” etc. The friendliness of the space as such can be comprehended through the phenomenological description of bodily experience and the corresponding research of topophilia and topophobia, which should be treated not as psychological diagnosis or concrete attitudes of consciousness, but as phenomena, which are revealing itself in the world. Phenomenology of bodily presence in space can be seen as a prolific method, that could provide the descriptions of experience, which are necessary for implementation of “the right of the city” (H. Lefebvre).
The paper focuses on the review of current literature on formal philosophy. Special attention is paid to the review of the book «Introduction to Formal Philosophy» [Hansson, Hendricks, 2018].
Review of Andrew Haas, Unity and Aspect, Königshausen & Neumann, 2018, 375pp., ISBN 9783826064500.
Modern society is undergoing dramatic changes. Industrial civilization as a civilization of labour is becoming a thing of the past. The changes involve not just the attitude to labour, but the sphere of labour itself and its professional structure. New professions in information epoch are replacing old industrial occupations, changing stereotypes about everyday life that formed over centuries. The scale and types of activity that are in demand are transforming, new working practices are emerging, and labour legislation needs revision. The growing opposition between labour and capital raises the issue of the role of labour as a resource of global development. In the conditions of the shrinking welfare state, labour and the needs of a worker increasingly fall outside of the state control. The notions of social guarantees and corporate culture are turning into a simulacrum2 . Due to the disorganization of Western capitalism, big corporations and long-term liabilities to the workers and physical locations of workplaces have become obsolete. The number of corporations has shrunk twice since the early XXI century.
A mathematical model in science can be formulated as a counterfactual conditional, with the model’s assumptions in the antecedent and its predictions in the consequent. Interestingly, some of these models appear to have assumptions that are metaphysically impossible. Consider models in ecology that use differential equations to track the dynamics of some population of organisms. For the math to work, the model must assume that population size is a continuous quantity, despite that many organisms (e.g., rabbits) are necessarily discrete. This means our counterfactual representation of the model can have an impossible antecedent, giving us a counterpossible. Analogous counterpossibles arise in other sciences, as we’ll see. According to a prominent view in counterfactual semantics, the vacuity thesis, all counterpossibles are vacuously true, that is, true merely because their antecedents are necessarily false. But some counterpossible formulations of differential equation models in science are not all vacuously true—some are non-vacuously true, and some are false. I go on to show how an alternative semantics, one that employs impossible worlds, can deliver this judgment.
For the Russian Empire, the Catholic question was one of the most important domestic issues. It had to do with the building of relations with the western borderlands, primarily with Poland, in which the Catholic clergy was the driving force of the struggle for independence. In this context, in the second half of the 19th century, the Government of the Russian Empire considered maintaining a dialog with the Holy See as a way to preserve stability in the western borderlands of the Empire. For Alexander III, it was also a symbolic act illustrating Russia’s course for demonstrating continuity with the Christian emperors of the Roman Empire. This was meant to emphasize Russia’s special position in Europe. The image of Russia as a Christian empire committed to preserving traditional values was contrasted with the image of the liberal-egalitarian Western Europe, which was swept by revolutionary sentiments during this period. A unique historical source on the foreign policy of the Vatican in Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th century and relations between the Holy See and Russia is the correspondence of Pope Leo XIII and Russian Emperor Alexander III. From 1881 to 1894, Pope Leo XIII sent about ten official letters and to each of them received an official response from the Emperor.
Vladimir Bibichin (1938-2004) is one of the most influential Russian philosophers of the last century. His Heidegger translations made him known and allowed him to develop his own philosophical positions. The present volume is the first in German and presents his exploration of contemporary Russian history. The period of upheaval between 1991 and 1993 is the starting point for his statements in the perpetual dispute between Westerners and Slavophiles. Bibichin, who felt equally at home in religious philosophy and in the European traditions of thought as well, turned against the "Russian Sonderweg" and tried the "Other beginning". His examination of "One's own" leads him to a criticism of the unleashed technology and globalization.
The Jünger brothers count among those authors of the 20th century who are particularly sensitive to developments in technology and the media. With his two seminal essays "Die totale Mobilmachung" (1930) and "Der Arbeiter. Herrschaft und Gestalt" (1932), Ernst Jünger set standards in the interpretation of these developments. With "Die Perfektion der Technik" (1946), Friedrich Georg Jünger opened up an independent approach to technology that was quite different from that of his brother. This issue of the Jünger yearbook contains essays by renowned Jünger researchers on this topic as well as the first publication of the verbatim transcription of a part of the "Arbeiter" manuscript including a facsimile.
Dieser Beitrag widmet sich den bedeutsamsten theoretischen Stufen in der Vorgeschichte der Religionspsychologie in Deutschland, die sich im Laufe des langen 19. Jahrhunderts entwickelte. Die unterschiedlichen Skizzen und Projekte der psychologischen Forschung auf religiösem Gebiet wurden damals vor allem im theologischen Milieu entworfen. Die Haupttendenzen ihrer konzeptuellen Entwicklung können anhand der Bedeutungsveränderung der ‚Stichwörter‘ wie [religiöse] Erfahrung, Selbstbeobachtung und Wert nachverfolgt werden. Von Anfang an zielten Philosophen wie J. Fries und Theologen wie Chr. Weisse auf größtmögliche Exaktheit und Strenge der zu erarbeitenden Methode. Sie setzten dabei ihre Hoffnungen in die Selbstbeobachtung, aber der Einfluss W. Wundts ließ Zweifel daran aufkommen. Deshalb glaubten manche Theologen ab den 1890er Jahren, die unvermeidlichen Nachteile der Introspektion durch die Anwendung der interaktiven bzw. instrumentalen Methoden der psychologischen Untersuchung aufheben zu können. Außerdem waren die deutschen religionspsychologischen Entwürfe des 19. Jahrhunderts stark axiologisch orientiert: Es handelte sich um die Wertgefühle bzw. Werturteile (d. h. weltanschaulich bzw. doktrinell gefärbtes affektives Fürwahrhalten) als den wesentlichsten Bestandteil der Religiosität überhaupt. Diese Tendenz schwächte sich zum Ende des langen 19. Jahrhunderts ab.
Conference proceedings of the V. annual German conference at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow, April 17, 2019.